The accompanying text reads:
12-IN. HIGH EXPLOSIVE SHELLS-STAGE IN THEIR MANUFACTURE DELIVERING "LLOYD-GEORGE" IN THE VICKERS WORKS
DRAWN BY OUR SPECIAL ARTIST, S. BEGG: BY COURTESY OF MESSRS. VICKERS SONS AND MAXIM
1. BILLETS (SOLID BLOCKS OF STEEL) READY FOR THE FURNACE.
2. TAKING A BILLET FROM THE FURNACE IN WHICH IT HAS BEEN HEATED FOR FORGING.
3. FORGING, OR "DRAWING" A 12-INCH SHELL IN A HYDRAULIC PRESS.
4. WITHDRAWING A SHELL FROM THE HEADING PRESS, THAT MAKES THE "NOSE" CONICAL.
5. TURNING THE RADIUS HEAD AND BODY OF SHELL.
6. PLACING THE BASE OF A 12-INCH SHELL IN POSITION.
7. VARNISHING THE INSIDE OF A SHELL (AFTERWARDS INVERTED TO DRAIN).
8. TURNING A COPPER GAS-CHECK, OR DRIVING-BAND.
We give here, by courtesy of Messrs Vickers Sons and Maxim, a series of drawings made by our special artist in their works at Barrow-in-Furness, illustrating various processes in the manufacture of high-explosive shells, and, on another page, one showing a stage in the making of shrapnel. The difference between the two kinds of shell is that, while shrapnel, on bursting, distributes a large number of bullets and splinters over a wide area, being thus very deadly against masses of troops, the effect of high-explosive shell is more concentrated and much more destructive within the smaller area which it affects. Consequently it is used for demolishing forts, earth-works, wire entanglements, and other defences. The area covered by the splinters of an 18 lb. field-gun high-explosive shell is about 500 square yards (50 broad by 10 long). Or about 1-15th of the area affected by a shrapnel shell of similar size. But within that smaller space the high explosive shell wreaks everything, and the destructive power of the larger shells increases in proportion to the cube of their diameter. A 6-inch high-explosive shell, for instance, is eight times as destructive as a 3-inch shell, and a 12-inch shell (such as those here illustrated) eight times as deadly as a 6-inch. The mere concussion of a high-explosive shell may also destroy life within its sphere of action. In a recent letter on the subject, Lord Sydenham wrote: "high-explosive shells, if burst in the air, disperse their splinters violently in all directions . . . the shattering effect upon earthworks, obstacles, or an enemy's guns, when a percussion-fuse is used, may be very great . . . Siege-warfare may, therefore, require both projectiles - shrapnel to resist an infantry attack and to sweep the ground over which reinforcements may be brought up; high- explosive shell to break down material obstacles, to render an enemy's trenches untended, and to attack his guns in position." One British soldier, it may be added, has found a new nick-name for shells. In a letter home he expresses satisfaction that the Army has plenty of "Lloyd Georges."- [Drawings Copyrighted in the United States and Canada.]